How to Write a CV for Job Application

how to write a cv for job application

Whether you are a fresh graduate, a seasoned professional looking for a career change, or someone returning to the workforce after a break, a well-crafted curriculum vitae (CV) can significantly boost your chances of landing your dream job. A CV is your personal marketing tool, showcasing your skills, qualifications, and experiences to potential employers. However, writing an effective CV can be daunting if you’re unsure where to start or how to structure it.

In this comprehensive guide, we will take you through the step-by-step process of writing a CV that stands out from the competition. From choosing the right format to highlighting your key achievements and skills, we have covered you. So let’s dive in and unlock the secrets of crafting an exceptional CV that gets noticed.

1. Choosing the Right CV Format

The first step in writing an impressive CV is selecting the appropriate format. There are three main types of CV formats: chronological, functional, and combination. Each format serves a specific purpose, so choose the one that best highlights your relevant experience and skills.

Chronological CV Format

The chronological CV format is the most common and widely accepted. It starts with your most recent work experience and progresses backward in reverse chronological order. This format suits individuals with a consistent work history in the same field or industry.

The advantages of a chronological CV format include the following:

  • Easy to read and understand for hiring managers.
  • Highlights career progression and growth.
  • Demonstrates stability and longevity in previous roles.

Functional CV Format

The functional CV format focuses more on your skills, accomplishments, and qualifications rather than the specific timeline of your work experience. This format is ideal for candidates who want to highlight transferrable skills or those with employment gaps.

The advantages of a functional CV format include the following:

  • Emphasizes skills relevant to the role applied for.
  • Enables you to showcase achievements without being constrained by job titles or dates.
  • Downplays any employment gaps by focusing on abilities rather than chronology.

Combination CV Format

As the name suggests, a combination CV combines elements of both the chronological and functional formats. It allows you to highlight your key skills while showcasing your work experience in reverse chronological order. This format suits individuals who want to emphasize their qualifications and work history.

Advantages of a combination CV format include:

  • Best of both worlds – showcases relevant skills as well as career progression.
  • Gives you the flexibility to tailor sections according to job requirements.
  • Helps bridge any gaps between experiences.

Choose the CV format that aligns with your background, goals, and industry requirements.

2. Personal Information Section

At the top of your CV, include a concise personal information section that provides vital details about yourself. This section should include:

  • Full Name: Use your legal name as it appears on official documents.
  • Contact Information: Provide a professional email address and a phone number to reach recruiters. Avoid using unprofessional email addresses or ones that may be outdated, such as those associated with personal hobbies.
  • Address: Optionally include your full address; this is especially important if you’re applying for a job abroad or when location is a significant factor.
  • LinkedIn Profile: Include a link to your LinkedIn profile if it is up-to-date and showcases your relevant professional experience.

Remember that including unnecessary personal information, such as age, religion, or marital status, is generally discouraged. Focus on providing essential details that contribute to your professional image.

3. Professional Summary/Objective Statement

After the personal information section, consider including a professional summary or objective statement at the beginning of your CV. This statement introduces your qualifications and helps recruiters quickly grasp your suitability for the role.

Professional Summary

A professional summary is a brief paragraph (3-5 sentences) highlighting your core competencies and experiences relevant to the position you are applying for. This section should capture the attention of recruiters by presenting them with an overview of why you are the ideal candidate.

When writing a professional summary:

  • Tailor it to align with the specific job requirements.
  • Emphasize key skills and accomplishments related to the role.
  • Highlight any unique attributes or experiences that differentiate you from other candidates.
  • Keep it concise, engaging, and impactful.

Example Professional Summary:

Results-oriented marketing professional with 7 years of experience in digital marketing strategies and campaign management. Skilled in leveraging data analytics tools to drive targeted marketing campaigns that increase brand visibility and generate leads. Proven track record of supporting business growth through market research, competitor analysis, and customer segmentation. Strong creativity and problem-solving skills, combined with an ability to thrive in a fast-paced environment.

Objective Statement

An objective statement is typically used for entry-level positions or when you are switching careers. It outlines your career goals and professional aspirations. When crafting an objective statement:

  • Be specific about the role or industry you are targeting.
  • Highlight relevant skills or experiences that make you a good fit.
  • Showcase your enthusiasm, motivation, and commitment to personal growth.

Example Objective Statement:

Motivated software engineer with a passion for developing innovative solutions to complex problems. Seeking an entry-level position in a technology-driven company where I can apply my programming skills, creativity, and strong problem-solving abilities to contribute to the development of cutting-edge software applications. Eager to work as part of a collaborative team to enhance user experiences and drive technological advancements.

Choose a professional summary or objective statement based on your experience level and career objectives.

4. Work Experience Section

The work experience section of your CV is where you highlight your previous employment history, demonstrating how your skills were applied in real-world scenarios. This section provides hiring managers with insights into your responsibilities, achievements, and the impact you made in previous roles.

When writing about your work experience:

  • Start with your most recent position and work backward chronologically.
  • Include the organization’s name, job title, employment dates (month/year), and location.
  • Use bullet points to highlight key responsibilities and accomplishments for each role.
  • Quantify achievements whenever possible by including specific metrics or results.
  • Focus on demonstrating transferable skills that are relevant to the job you’re applying for.

Example Work Experience Entry:

Marketing Manager
**ABC Company** | New York, NY | May 2018 - Present

- Developed and implemented comprehensive digital marketing strategies that increased online sales by 30% within two quarters.
- Oversaw a team of five marketers, delegating tasks and providing guidance to optimize performance and achieve targets.
- Conducted market research to identify customer segmentation opportunities, resulting in a 20% increase in customer engagement and a 15% boost in brand loyalty.
- Collaborated with cross-functional teams to launch product campaigns and promotions, resulting in an average conversion rate improvement of 25% for new product launches.
- Managed a digital advertising budget of $500,000, optimizing spend allocation across various channels to maximize ROI.

Highlighting relevant accomplishments and demonstrating your value to previous roles will make your work experience section more impactful.

5. Education Section

Education plays an important role in evaluating a candidate’s qualifications for many employers. In this section of your CV, provide information about your educational background. Include:

  • Degree(s) Earned: Specify the degree(s) you obtained (e.g., Bachelor of Science).
  • Major/Field of Study: Indicate your area of specialization or concentration.
  • Institution Name: Include the name of the university or college attended.
  • Date(s) Attended: Provide the dates (month/year) of enrollment and graduation for each qualification obtained.

Example Education Entry:

Bachelor of Business Administration
**XYZ University** | Anytown, USA | September 2015 - May 2019

If you have recently graduated or have limited work experience, consider adding additional details such as relevant coursework, academic achievements, research projects, or internships to showcase your practical skills and knowledge.

6. Skills Section

The skills section allows you to demonstrate your proficiency in key areas relevant to the job you’re applying for. This section should reflect the hard and soft skills that make you an ideal candidate.

Hard Skills

Hard skills are specific, teachable abilities that can be measured. Examples include technical skills, software proficiency, language fluency, or specific tools/systems knowledge. Be sure to list hard skills that are relevant to the job you’re applying for.

Example Hard Skills:

  • Programming languages (e.g., Java, Python)
  • Web development (HTML, CSS, JavaScript)
  • Microsoft Office Suite (Word, Excel, PowerPoint)
  • Project management methodologies (Agile/Scrum)
  • Data analysis and visualization (Tableau, Power BI)

Soft Skills

Soft skills are personal attributes that enable you to interact effectively and harmoniously with others. These skills are often transferable across industries and are crucial to your ability to excel in the workplace. Some examples of soft skills include:

  • Communication skills: verbal and written
  • Teamwork and collaboration
  • Problem-solving and critical thinking
  • Time management and organization
  • Leadership and adaptability

When listing your soft skills:

  • Provide evidence or examples of how you have effectively utilized these skills in previous roles.
  • Focus on skills that resonate with the job requirements.
  • Avoid generic statements; be specific about your abilities.

Example Skills Entry:

### Technical Skills:
- Programming languages: Java, C++, Python
- Data analysis: SQL, R, Tableau
- Web development: HTML5, CSS3, JavaScript
### Soft Skills:
- Excellent verbal and written communication skills demonstrated through delivering captivating presentations.
- Strong problem-solving ability recognized by identifying bottlenecks in an existing process.

It’s important to balance showcasing your technical expertise and highlighting the soft skills necessary for success in the role.

7. Additional Sections

In addition to the core sections mentioned above, you may include additional sections that add value to your CV. Depending on your background and career goals, consider including relevant sections such as:

Certifications and Training

Include certifications or professional training programs that are relevant to the job you’re applying for. This could be an industry-specific certification, project management training, or any specialized training that enhances your qualifications.

Example Certifications Entry:

### Project Management Professional (PMP)
- Obtained through the Project Management Institute (PMI)
- Valid until August 2024

Awards and Achievements

If you have received any notable awards, honors, or recognitions related to your work, academic achievements, or extracurricular activities, include them in this section. Highlighting your accomplishments can make your CV stand out from the competition.

Example Awards and Achievements Entry:

### Excellence in Leadership Award
- Recognized for exceptional leadership skills and driving team performance during a challenging project.
- Presented by ABC Corporation - April 2020


If you have written any articles, research papers, blog posts, or contributed to publications within your industry, this section can emphasize your expertise and thought leadership.

Example Publications Entry:

### "The Impact of Artificial Intelligence on Customer Service"
Published in the Journal of Technology Innovation - August 2021

Professional Memberships

If you are a member of industry associations or professional organizations related to your field, include them in this section.

Example Professional Memberships Entry:

### Member: Association of Marketing Professionals (AMP)
Valid from January 2020 - Present


Traditionally, CVs included a separate reference section with contact information for references. However, this practice is becoming less common. Instead, it is generally sufficient to state “References available upon request” at the end of your CV. If a company specifically requests references upfront, you can provide them separately.

When listing references on your CV:

  • Notify each reference in advance and ensure they will provide a positive recommendation.
  • Share their full contact details, including their name, job title, company, phone number, and email address.

Example References Entry:

References available upon request.

Including additional sections can help tailor your CV to specific roles or highlight unique attributes that make you a standout candidate.

8. Formatting Tips for Your CV

A well-formatted CV is essential for readability and making a good first impression on potential employers. Here are some formatting tips to keep in mind:

  • Use legible font styles and sizes (e.g., Arial, Calibri) with consistent formatting throughout your CV.
  • Add appropriate white spaces to enhance readability and separate sections clearly.
  • Keep paragraphs concise and use bullet points to highlight key information.
  • Be consistent with headings/subheadings by using the same font style and size consistently.
  • Proofread your CV thoroughly for any grammatical errors or typos.

Remember that formatting aims to make your CV visually appealing while maintaining professionalism.

9. Dos and Don’ts for Writing a Great CV

To ensure your CV leaves a lasting impression on recruiters, here are some dos and don’ts when writing it:


  • Do tailor your CV for each job application according to the specific requirements of that role.
  • Do use action verbs to describe your achievements and responsibilities (e.g., “managed,” “implemented,” “led”).
  • Do quantify your accomplishments whenever possible using metrics or percentages.
  • Do proofread your CV thoroughly before submitting it. Typos and grammatical errors can negatively impact your chances of getting an interview.
  • Do include keywords related to the job description without excessively stuffing them into sentences (see next point).
  • Do write your CV naturally, avoiding using keywords that detract from readability.


  • Don’t include false information or exaggerate your accomplishments. Employers can easily verify the details provided.
  • Don’t use an unprofessional email address (e.g., Opt for a simple and professional address.
  • Don’t use generic templates without personalizing them. Tailor your CV for each job opportunity.
  • Don’t focus too much on irrelevant hobbies or personal interests unless they are directly related to the desired role.
  • Don’t send a CV without customizing it for the job at hand. Generic CVs are less likely to get noticed.

Following these dos and don’ts will help you create a compelling CV that stands out from the competition and increases your chances of securing an interview.

10. Final Thoughts

Writing a great CV is a critical step in your job application process. By following the guidelines in this comprehensive guide, you are now equipped with the knowledge to create an outstanding CV that showcases your skills, experiences, and achievements effectively.

Remember to tailor your CV to align with the specific requirements of each job application, highlight relevant accomplishments, and present yourself as a valuable candidate. Investing time and effort into crafting a well-written CV can significantly enhance your chances of landing an interview and ultimately securing the job of your dreams.

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Anne is a student of history. She enjoys sharing her passion and experiences with people through blogging. She started to educate and inspire people globally.
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